Photo by Scott Graham on Unsplash

 

Welcome to our Research Page

 

The CCE team does extensive research to support its activities.  This page provides access to the research that we can share publicly.  Please contact us if you have questions about anything you find here.  Asterisks indicate most relevant papers.

FYI:  Should you see an entry with text that has been struck out, that indicates a broken link.  This site updates us regularly about broken links, and we fix them as soon as we can.  But should you see this, you’ll know what it is; no need to contact us about it.

Thank you for visiting our research page.

Papers Relevant to EVs and V2G

hidden row so that next ones all closed
EV and V2G Economic Impacts

Study by Cal Electric Transportation Coalition

Charging infrastructure for 5 M vehicles 5.5 to 25 Billion dollars

*The Infrastructure Needs and Costs for 5 Million Light-Duty Electric Vehicles in California by 2030

*Electric Power Sector Investments of $75–125 Billion Needed to Support Projected 20 Million EVs by 2030, According to Brattle Economists

SCE_EV_Virtual_Power_Plant.pdf

Critical Elements of Vehicle-to- Grid (V2G) Economics.pdf

*CALGreen-2019-Supplement-Cost-Analysis-Final-1.pdf

Proven Results and Cost Savings with V2G Technology — Fermata Energy

Economic Valuation of Vehicle-Grid Integration (VGI) in a Demand Response Application from Each Stakeholder’s Perspective

*The Infrastructure Needs and Costs for 5 Million Light-Duty Electric Vehicles in California by 2030

Factors influencing the economics of public charging infrastructures for EV – A review

Beyond emissions and economics: Rethinking the co-benefits of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G)

Reduced grid operating costs and renewable energy curtailment with electric vehicle charge management

Report from Brattle, has cost of L2 station at $17,000

Getting to 20 Million EVs by 2030: Opportunities for the Electricity Industry in Preparing for an EV Future     Local link: 19421_brattle_-_opportunities_for_the_electricity_industry_in_ev_transition_-_final.pdf

 

EV and V2G Economic Insights

Study by Cal Electric Transportation Coalition

Charging infrastructure for 5 M vehicles 5.5 to 25 Billion dollars

*The Infrastructure Needs and Costs for 5 Million Light-Duty Electric Vehicles in California by 2030

*Electric Power Sector Investments of $75–125 Billion Needed to Support Projected 20 Million EVs by 2030, According to Brattle Economists

SCE_EV_Virtual_Power_Plant.pdf

Critical Elements of Vehicle-to- Grid (V2G) Economics.pdf

*CALGreen-2019-Supplement-Cost-Analysis-Final-1.pdf

Proven Results and Cost Savings with V2G Technology — Fermata Energy

Economic Valuation of Vehicle-Grid Integration (VGI) in a Demand Response Application from Each Stakeholder’s Perspective

*The Infrastructure Needs and Costs for 5 Million Light-Duty Electric Vehicles in California by 2030

Factors influencing the economics of public charging infrastructures for EV – A review

Beyond emissions and economics: Rethinking the co-benefits of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G)

Reduced grid operating costs and renewable energy curtailment with electric vehicle charge management

Report from Brattle, has cost of L2 station at $17,000

Getting to 20 Million EVs by 2030: Opportunities for the Electricity Industry in Preparing for an EV Future     Local link: 19421_brattle_-_opportunities_for_the_electricity_industry_in_ev_transition_-_final.pdf

 

Transmission Costs

Paper on transmission costs

Cost is very dependent on location, solar is higher can be $15/MWh average in US $8.3

Improving estimates of transmission capital costs for utility-scale wind and solar projects to inform renewable energy policy

Slides from above

Nov2019_transmission_for_vre_webinar.pdf

Clean Coalition on Transmission costs

The transmission elephant in the room

Study cited by CC on local solar vs transmission.

Executive Summary Why Local Solar For All Costs Less:

Electric Vehicle Charging

RMI Reducing EV infrastructure cost

Full report offering numbers and projections on full costs of EV charging as well as a thorough analysis on cost reduction techniques.

Slideshow on reducing EV charging infrastructure costs 

 

Electrifying urban ridesourcing fleets at no added cost through efficient use of charging infrastructure

The road to bidirectional CCS electric car charging

V2G and Battery Life
Marongiu, A., M. Roscher, and D.U. Sauer. 2015. “Influence of the vehicle-to-grid strategy on the aging behavior of lithium battery electric vehicles.” Applied Energy 137: 899–912.

Peterson, S.B., J. Apt, and J.F. Whitacre. 2010. “Lithium-ion battery cell degradation resulting from realistic vehicle and vehicle-to-grid utilization.” Journal of Power Sources 195(8): 2385–2392.

Ribberink, H., K. Darcovich, and F. Pincet. 2015. “Battery life impact of vehicle-to-grid application of electric vehicles” Presented at the 28th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition 2015, EVS 2015.

Carports
EDF subsidiary is making software to manage charging stations in carports:
EDF Renewables makes smart EV charging the centerpiece of its distributed energy strategy

CEC report on infrastructure costs:
Investment Plan Update for Clean Transportation program

This is the description of the state program to subsidize charging stations, it includes the official price:
CALeVIP 2020.pptx

A company with stand alone charging stations:
Sustainable EV Charging-Lowest TCO and Fastest to Deploy | Beam

NREL Summary with cost breakouts for ground mount systems:
Annual Technology Baseline: The 2020 Electricity Update

Bibliography on carports (from 2017):
Resource Links on Solar Carports and Canopies

Tools

hidden row so that next ones all closed
Models

European Models

Resolve Model Webinar – Your Questions Answered

CPUC Models

Proposed Reference System Plan

Unified RA and IRP Modeling Datasets 2019

CPUC Solar cost modelling slideshow for 2020

Staff analysis to support resource to busbar mapping process

Solar Cost Sensitivity Modelling 

Paper using EV-SIM to show impact of V2G on Duck Curve

Modeling the Future California Electricity Grid and Renewable Energy Integration with Electric Vehicles

CAISO Mid-term Reliability Need Determination

A model used to determine the need for new generation capacity

StackAnalysisModel_02022021.xlsx

TURN submission of LOLE and SERVM

R2005003_TURN_opcom_midtermreliability_032621.pdf

 

Other

MAISY Utility Customer Energy Use and Hourly Load Databases and Analytics

Government Documents for the Record

hidden row so that next ones all closed

Webinars and Slideshows

hidden row so that next ones all closed
Grid Charging

Nuvve Vehicle to Grid Charging – San Diego EVA Presentation Nov, 2019

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKg_GWDogFc

EV Readiness and Charging at Multi-Unit Dwellings

https://www.slideshare.net/emmaline742/electric-vehicles-readiness-and-charging-at-multiunit-dwellings-by-eric-huang

SCRIPT: Smart Charging Infrastructure Planning Tool

https://drive.google.com/file/d/12CfI1sjlmEvJ316KAFzDa83qOyUc-Vcg/view?usp=sharing 

The Potential for EV Managed Charging FlexCharging

Brian Grunkemeyer Presentation on FlexCharging

Microgrids and Resiliency OIR Pre-PSPS Charging under NEM

NEM Pre-PSPS Charging

Charging the Future of Mobility

Webinar_Emobility_as_Energy_Ressource_P2DEU2020_smartEn.pdf

Harnessing Mobile Energy Storage for Grid Resilience – Presentation by Kurt Johnson

Batteries on Wheels Webinar – Kurt Johnson

Electric Vehicles

Charging the Future of Mobility

Webinar_Emobility_as_Energy_Ressource_P2DEU2020_smartEn.pdf

Bus Transit Fleets as Service Center of Future for Transportation Electrification

EPIC Transportation Electrification on Service Center of the Future

Climate Friday: Batteries on Wheels – Presentation by Ellie Cohen

Batteries on Wheels Webinar – Ellie Cohen

California Energy Commission EPIC Project: EXtensible Building Operating System – Vehicles

Lipman PICG Transportation Workstream

V2X Integration

Rhombus Webinar Recording 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OY6xV_4s88&feature=youtu.be

Nuvve Slideshow

https://www.slideshare.net/emmaline742/nuuve-vehicle-to-grid-by-marc-trahand

V2ehicle to Building for Resilient Backup Power

Staff Presentation V2ehicle-to-Building for Resilient Backup Power.pdf

Nuvve Uses, Implementations, and Applications for V2G at CESA Webinar

Nuvve V2G for CESA webinar for distribution

Policies Targeting Behavioral Challenges Involving Vehicle to Grid Integration

DeShazo PICG Transportation Workstream

Vehicle-to-Grid: Right at Your Doorstep

Rap Webinar Vehicle to Grid Right at your Doorstep

Using Existing Smart Meters for Improved PSPS Resiliency

North Energy – CESA – Enabling Microgrids for PSPS Resiliency.pdf

Power Control Systems: Overview of the New UL1741 CRD

EPRI Power Control Systems – UL 1741 CRD_ITWG

Trends

Taming the Duck Curve

Copy of Sarter Taming the duck, MICROGRIDS AND VPP’s _ SDED Virtual Conference 2020.pdf

Market Overview and Trends for E-mobility and Smart Charging in the EU

TheSmarterE_Webinar_Charging_Systems_Market_Overview_200630.pdf

Policies Targeting Behavioral Challenges Involving Vehicle to Grid Integration

DeShazo PICG Transportation Workstream

Popular Articles

Other Topics Related to Energy Policy

hidden row so that next ones all closed
Energy Storage

Proposed Decision calling for 1000MW of long duration storage

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGE’S RULING SEEKING FEEDBACK ON MID-TERM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS AND PROPOSED PROCUREMENT REQUIREMENTS.PDF

CAISO expects 10,000 MW shortfall by 2026

Has tables of expected peak load and shortfall. Calls for generation AFTER sunset.

2021-03-26_R.20-05-003_CAISO_Comments_ALJ-Ruling_Questions.pdf

Study on Long Duration Storage

2021-03-26 CESA’s LDES Study Report – Attachment.pdf

Form Energy Submission to PUC has stats on periods of low renewable energy

Form Energy_R.20-05-003_Response to February 22, 2021 ALJ Ruling.pdf

Modeling ELCC of batteries

Energy Storage Capacity Value on the CAISO System.pdf

 

Utility-Scale Energy Storage: When Free Isn’t Cheap Enough

  • Note: must have a membership to view

Organizations

CCA

Papers on Nuclear Power

Pumped Hydro

V2G

Wind

H2

hidden row
H2

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1quMAMUnUaj8W-am4MDN9GvYv6hNPb-bc/view: A good summary of where hydrogen can advance decarbonization and where it is being promoted for greenwashing.

https://www.fool.com/investing/2020/08/05/does-the-hydrogen-economy-have-a-pipeline-problem.aspx

https://www.engineering.com/ElectronicsDesign/ElectronicsDesignArticles/ArticleID/20586/The-Pros-and-Cons-of-Hydrogen-Fuel-Cells-as-Backup-Generators.aspx

https://www.buildingdecarb.org/archived/a-roadmap-to-decarbonize-californias-buildings

https://www.electrive.com/2020/09/08/ballard-introduces-fuel-cell-module-for-ships/

https://power.mhi.com/regions/amer/news/20200902.html

https://www.powermag.com/entergy-moves-heavily-on-hydrogen-for-gas-turbines-nuclear/

https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1129846_hyundai-invests-in-startup-aiming-to-transport-hydrogen-in-oil

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/53ab1feee4b0bef0179a1563/t/5e7ca9d6c8fb3629d399fe0c/1585228263363/Road+Map+to+a+US+Hydrogen+Economy+Full+Report.pdf

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201006114309.htm

https://techxplore.com/news/2020-10-abundant-opportunities-hydrogen-future-energy.html

https://www.powerengineeringint.com/gas-oil-fired/ge-and-partners-shifting-ohio-gas-fired-plant-to-hydrogen/

https://about.bnef.com/blog/liebreich-separating-hype-from-hydrogen-part-two-the-demand-side/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200416151739.htm

https://www.utilitydive.com/news/hydrogen-is-having-a-moment-and-power-generation-is-leading-the-way/587958/

https://www.smart-energy.com/renewable-energy/iberdrola-partner-to-invest-2-09-billion-in-green-hydrogen-production/

https://nice-future.org/webinars/hydrogen-fuel-future

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/energy-department-looks-to-boost-hydrogen-fuel-for-big-trucks/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200416151739.htm

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/electric-school-bus-fleets-test-the-u.s-vehicle-to-grid-proposition?utm_medium=email&utm_source=Daily&utm_campaign=GTMDaily

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/how-to-build-a-green-hydrogen-economy-for-the-u.s-west?utm_medium=email&utm_source=Daily&utm_campaign=GTMDaily

https://cleantechnica.com/2020/11/23/western-green-hydrogen-makeover-clouds-fossil-energy-revival/

https://www.rechargenews.com/wind/european-wind-and-solar-link-arms-to-push-green-hydrogen-over-blue/2-1-917511

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/plug-power-raises-1b-for-u.s-green-hydrogen-infrastructure-buildout?utm_medium=email&utm_source=Daily&utm_campaign=GTMDaily

https://www.powermag.com/lessons-learned-from-a-hydrogen-explosion/

https://www.euractiv.com/section/shipping/news/denmark-and-norway-team-up-to-build-worlds-largest-hydrogen-ferry/

https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2020-opinion-hydrogen-green-energy-revolution-challenges-risks-advantages/oil.html?sref=X9N3NABa

https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2020-opinion-hydrogen-green-energy-revolution-challenges-risks-advantages/policy.html?sref=X9N3NABa

https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2020-opinion-hydrogen-green-energy-revolution-challenges-risks-advantages/?sref=X9N3NABa

https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-10-19/hydrogen-brightens-the-already-sunny-outlook-for-clean-energy?sref=X9N3NABa

https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-10-19/hydrogen-brightens-the-already-sunny-outlook-for-clean-energy?sref=X9N3NABa

https://assets.siemens-energy.com/siemens/assets/api/uuid:3d4339dc-434e-4692-81a0-a55adbcaa92e/200915-whitepaper-h2-infrastructure-en.pdf

https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-11-09/how-hydrogen-is-and-isn-t-the-future-of-energy-for-the-eu-china-japan?sref=X9N3NABa

https://www.desmogblog.com/2020/12/09/fti-consulting-fossil-fuel-pr-group-behind-europe-hydrogen-lobby?utm_source=DeSmog%20Weekly%20Newsletter

https://www.theautochannel.com/news/2020/12/14/924650-hydrogen-hype-air.html#google_vignette

https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/eu-agrees-its-green-transition-fund-will-not-support-natural-gas/

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.06015.pdf#:~:text=The%20value%20of%20compressibility%20factor,at%20low%20temperatures%20even%20earlier.

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/why-offshore-wind-and-energy-giants-are-chasing-off-grid-green-hydrogen?utm_medium=email&utm_source=Daily&utm_campaign=GTMDaily

https://theecologist.org/2020/dec/18/hydrogen-hoax

https://peopleandnature.wordpress.com/2020/10/30/hydrogen-for-homes-is-a-terrible-idea-we-should-fight-it/

https://h2techreport.com/2020/12/new-technology-could-transform-hydrogen-distribution-enable-rapid-expansion-of-hydrogen-fueling-stations-video

https://unearthed.greenpeace.org/2020/12/08/unearthed-today-why-oil-companies-want-you-to-love-hydrogen/

https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/12/20201220-yara.html

https://cleantechnica.com/2020/12/23/latest-hydrogen-economy-round-is-hype-but-there-is-a-place-for-hydrogen/

https://www.rechargenews.com/transition/eu-ends-funding-for-natural-gas-pipelines-with-shift-to-power-and-hydrogen/2-1-932144

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/12/can-we-crack-the-hydrogen-puzzle-this-time-around/

https://newatlas.com/energy/socalgas-hydrogen-natural-gas-blending/

https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f11/blending_h2_nat_gas_pipeline.pdf

https://nikolamotor.com/hydrogen

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/03/green-hydrogen-from-renewables-could-become-cheapest-transformative-fuel-within-a-decade

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214629620302425

https://cleantechnica.com/2020/06/10/this-stunning-chart-shows-why-battery-electric-vehicles-win/

https://www.desmogblog.com/2021/01/14/decoding-hype-behind-natural-gas-industry-hydrogen-push

https://www.irena.org/publications/2020/Dec/Green-hydrogen-cost-reduction

https://www.irena.org/publications/2020/Nov/Green-hydrogen

https://www.energyandcapital.com/report/the-hydrogen-economy-20/106

https://seekingalpha.com/article/4400660-hydrogen-economy-picture-is-confused-timeline-too-long

https://www.rechargenews.com/transition/blow-to-clean-hydrogen-sector-as-major-truck-maker-rules-out-h2-for-long-distance-transport/2-1-951345

https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/avoid-hydrogen-for-heating-homes-urges-energy-efficiency-coalition/

https://energypost.eu/hybrit-project-sweden-goes-for-zero-carbon-steel/

https://www.arup.com/-/media/arup/files/publications/f/hydrogen-guide.pdf

https://cleantechnica.com/2021/02/24/hydrogen-is-big-oils-last-grand-scam/

https://www.treehugger.com/heat-from-hydrogen-cost-study-5116188

https://blog.ballard.com/renewable-energy-storage

https://www.rechargenews.com/energy-transition/blue-hydrogen-worse-than-gas-for-the-climate-landmark-studys-damning-verdict/2-1-1051084

https://www.cleanegroup.org/hydrogen-hype-in-the-air/

Building Electrictrification

Transmission Upgrades

Market Design – How Rates are Set

Microgrids

VPP

hidden row

DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES (DER)

hidden row
DER

https://gridworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/RoleOfDER-NJ_Report.pdf

http://www.caiso.com/Documents/Presentation-EnergyStorage-DistributedEnergyResourcesPhase4WorkingGroup-Jun27-2019.pdf

http://www.caiso.com/Documents/RevisedDraftFinalProposal-EnergyStorageDistributedEnergyResources.pdf

http://eta-publications.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/darghouth_rate_design_storage_final.pdf

https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190827005241/en/Wasatch-Group-sonnen-Rocky-Mountain-Power-Launch#.XWWQtDhzXhA.linkedin

https://gridworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/GW_Silicon-Valley-Clean-Energy-report-1.pdf

https://reneweconomy.com.au/south-australia-household-batteries-keeps-lights-on-in-queensland-after-coal-unit-fails-51385/

https://www.utilitydive.com/news/2020-outlook-utilities-will-be-pushed-to-further-embrace-distributed-energ/569613/

https://www.psegliny.com/aboutpseglongisland/-/media/CFDB7DF806404A3899A121AAAAED80CC.ashx

https://www.utilitydive.com/news/massachusetts-multipronged-policy-approach-spurs-distributed-energy-storag/554208/

http://www.caiso.com/Documents/ConformedTariff-asof-Jun17-2019.pdf

http://www.caiso.com/Documents/Presentation-EnergyStorage-DistributedEnergyResourcesPhase4WorkingGroup-Jun27-2019.pdf

https://cleanpowerexchange.org/der-programs-or-projects/

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/58c1c1ef15d5db46200138af/t/5d264e3ba2cbab00013c7e08/1562791494567/RoleOfDER+NJ_Report_Final.pdf

https://www.tdworld.com/distributed-energy-resources/article/21132853/how-two-simple-fixes-can-fairly-compensate-the-true-value-of-ders-in-california

https://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/PublishedDocs/Published/G000/M334/K734/334734544.PDF

https://www.utilitydive.com/news/exploding-transmission-costs-are-the-missing-story-in-californias-regional/526894/

https://library.sce.com/?10000_group.propertyvalues.property=jcr%3Acontent%2Fmetadata%2Fcq%3Atags&10000_group.propertyvalues.operation=equals&10000_group.propertyvalues.0_values=sce-document-library%3Aregulatory%2Fsce-historical-books%2Felectric%2F2020%2Fschedules%2Fgeneral-service-%26-industrial-rates

 

Demand Response

PDR-LSR

Transportation

Batteries

hidden row
Batteries

https://thedriven.io/2020/09/01/lithium-australias-envirostream-to-start-recycling-old-electric-car-batteries/

https://www.electrive.com/2020/09/02/straubels-recycling-startup-aims-for-reverse-gigafactory/

https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2020/09/01/eos-announces-1-5-gwh-of-zinc-battery-storage-projects-across-texas-and-california/

https://www.swellenergy.com/

https://cer.ucsd.edu/research/energy-storage/ARPA-E_CHARGES.html

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09988-z

http://ieefa.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Advances-in-Electricity-Storage-Suggest-Potential-Rapid-Disruption-of-U.S.-Electricity-Sector-1-1.pdf

https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy19osti/74184.pdf

https://energysmart.enelxnorthamerica.com/unlocking-financial-value-behind-meter-energy-storage

https://www.powermag.com/5-key-takeaways-from-fercs-recent-energy-storage-order/

https://www.lawofrenewableenergy.com/2018/02/articles/energy-storage/california-may-need-up-to-2000-mw-of-new-battery-energy-storage-resources-by-2030-commission-finds/

https://www.lawofrenewableenergy.com/2017/04/articles/energy-storage/behind-the-meter-energy-storage-gets-a-boost-in-california/

https://unigen.net

https://www.lawofrenewableenergy.com/2017/04/articles/energy-policy/california-lawmakers-introduce-clean-peak-standard-legislation/

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qn2FG7tSo00FRnFZh4VK1fPLIf1ZVrhU/view

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/woodmac-biggest-battery-buildout-ever-in-q3

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/the-top-10-energy-storage-stories-of-2020?utm_medium=email&utm_source=Daily&utm_campaign=GTMDaily

 

Geothermal

Carbon Credits and REC

References

Policy – Federal and State

Virtual Power Plant and Virtual Aggregated Power Plant Developers and Brokers

hidden row
Virtual Power Plant and Virtual Aggregated Power Plant Developers and Brokers

Jobs

Generation

Usage

Policy

General References of Interest

hidden row
General References of Interest

https://epicenergyblog.com/2021/04/12/ab-1139-reforms-to-california-alternate-rates-for-energy-care-program-and-net-energy-metering-nem/

http://www.caiso.com/TodaysOutlook/Pages/prices.aspx

https://www.caiso.com/Documents/FlexibleResourcesHelpRenewables_FastFacts.pdf

https://steinbuch.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/iea-vs-reality-photovoltaics-2018.png

https://voxeu.org/article/market-betting-climate-change

https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2019/05/06/wisconsin-utility-wants-to-tax-the-sun-24/

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/05/business/energy-environment/naacp-utility-donations.html

https://www.energyandpolicy.org/report-details-utilities-use-of-charitable-giving-to-influence-politics/

https://www.projectfinance.law/publications/2019/june/opportunity-zones-and-renewable-energy/

https://mseforum.com/archives-webinars/

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B75jGLY–lhwdjI3bF9BQ3EzU2c/view

https://www.vibrantcleanenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/CEDS-CEI-VCE-FullReport.pdf

https://www.vibrantcleanenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/CEDS-CEI-VCE-FullReport.pdf

https://www.utilitydive.com/news/pjm-nyiso-and-iso-ne-pay-14b-annually-for-excess-capacity-report/567798/

https://s3.amazonaws.com/v3-app_crowdc/assets/e/e7/e7311c8c1402fcb8/Mike_Bullock_-_Evolved_Wireless.original.1586469556.pdf?1586469558

https://cecgis-caenergy.opendata.arcgis.com/app/california-electric-infrastructure-app

https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/news/2019/01/31/thwaites-glacier-antarctica-melting-could-impact-sea-levels-nasa/2729840002/

https://blog.ucsusa.org/mark-specht/gas-retirements-california

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/07/we-have-too-many-fossil-fuel-power-plants-to-meet-climate-goals

https://ourworldindata.org/cheap-renewables-growth

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-12-17/bluewaters-coal-fired-power-station-written-off-books/12990532

https://reneweconomy.com.au/coking-coals-decline-likely-to-follow-path-of-thermal-coals-demise-79747/

https://futurism.com/the-byte/carbon-capture-plant-us-shuts-down

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/pge-plans-utility-owned-remote-grids-for-isolated-communities

https://reneweconomy.com.au/coking-coals-decline-likely-to-follow-path-of-thermal-coals-demise-79747/

https://cbeci.org/

https://digiconomist.net/bitcoin-energy-consumption

https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/pdf/electricity_generation.pdf

https://www.vibrantcleanenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/WhyDERs_ES_Final.pdf

https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/78882.pdf